Indian history is one of the grand epics of world history and a civilization with a history dating back more than 75,000 years ago with the evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens. Indian history begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization and the coming of the Aryans, who developed an urban culture based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade.
Below are it’s summarize vast and extensive history through the Ages:
The Stone Age
The Stone Age began approx. 5, 00,000 years ago and latest finds indicate the presence of the first anatomically humans in Tamil Nadu. Tools crafted by proto-humans have been discovered in the North-western part of the country that have been dated back to two million years.
The Bronze Age
known as historical part of ancient India. The Bronze Age in the Indian sub-continent dates back to the early Indus Valley Civilization, it is one of the world's earliest, urban civilizations, along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. Inhabitants of this age developed new techniques to produced copper, bronze, lead, tin and also in the field of handicraft.
The Aryans came out of the North in about 1500 BC and brought with them strong cultural traditions. Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages spoken by them, was used in the first documentation of the Vedas, and are believed to be oldest scriptures still in use. The Aryans laid down Vedic civilization all over North India, particularly in the Gangetic Plain, by placing down the roots of Hinduism and other cultural dimensions of early Indian society.
Toward the end of the Vedic Period in India, sixteen powerful states or kingdoms had emerged all over north, northwestern, and eastern India. These sixteen kingdoms were known as the Mahajanapadas and gained prominence around 600 BC. Name of the sixteen states were Kasi, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji (or Vriji), Malla, Chedi, Vatsa (or Vamsa), Kuru, Panchala, Matsya, Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara, and Kamboja.
Persian and Greek Conquests
The Persian and Greek incursions had important impacts on Indian civilization. The political systems of the Persians was to influence future forms of governance on the subcontinent, including the administration of the Mauryan dynasty.
Currently Afghanistan and Pakistan dating back known as Northwest subcontinent came under the rule of the Persian Empire in C. 520 BCE for two centuries. In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great conquered Asia Minor and the Persians Empire, when he reached the Northwest frontier of the Indian subcontinent he defeated King Porus and conquered most of Punjab.
The Maurya Empire reached on its peak under the great king Ashoka who converted to Buddhism in 262 BC. Ashokan statutes and pillars can be seen in Delhi, Gujarat, Orissa, and Sarnath in Uttar Pradesh and at Sanchi in Madhya Pradesh. In 319 AD, Chandragupta II founded the Gupta Empire. The arts flourished during this period, with some of the finest work being done at Ajanta, Ellora, Sanchi and Sarnath.
Mughal dynasty was established by Muslim rulers who came from Uzbekistan. The rulers were skillful warriors and admirers of art as well. During the Mughal period, art and architecture flourished and many beautiful monuments were constructed. Some of the wonderful monuments built during the Mughal reign are Taj Mahal, Fatehpur Sikri, Agra Red Fort and Humayun's Tomb in Delhi. .
Europeans came to India in the 17th century. British established its colony in 1757 in east of and expanded their influence thereafter and controlled most of present day Indian Pakistan by 1857. A rebellious outbreak in India in 1857 led to the transfer of all powers from the East India Company to the Crown in England. In 1858, the Mogul rule finally breathed its last after which the Empire created British India and styled the Empire of India as well. Although Britain ruled most of India but it also had local treaties with the feudal local rulers. Self-governance step were taken by The British where they appointed Indian councilors to acts as advisories to the British Viceroy and aid in establishment of provincial councils with members in India.
The anti-British struggle became truly a mass movement and followed by numerous movements against the British rule. With the passage of time and stubbornness of the Indians the British had come to realize that the day was not far off when they will have to quit India. Successive campaigns had the effect of driving the British out of India in 1947. In the years since independence India has made huge progress and coped with great problems, and has developed its industry and its agriculture, and has maintained a system of government which makes it the largest democracy in the world.